If you’re going to invest in one or two rentals with your IRA, then you won’t have a tax problem. You can operate these properties through a U.S. LLC (if domestic) or an offshore LLC (if abroad) and net profits will flow back in to your retirement account tax free.
If you buy in to a hotel, acquire land that you divide up and build homes on, or buy a multi-unit apartment building, which you improve and convert to condos, then you are probably a dealer in real estate and expected to pay 35% in Unrelated Business Income Tax (UBIT) to the IRS. That is to say, if your IRA operates as a dealer in real estate, you must pay 35% tax on your profits. Then and only then does the net flow in to your retirement account, to be taxed again on distribution (if a traditional IRA, or tax free in a ROTH).
Let’s take a step back for a moment. UBIT is a tax levied on IRAs that operate as a dealer, any kind of active business, purchase real estate with a mortgage, or use any kind of leverage in a brokerage account owned by the IRA.
In the case of an IRA buying with a mortgage or using leverage, UBIT applies to the portion of income driven from that leverage. If you purchase a rental with $100,000 down and $100,000 from a non-recourse mortgage, then 50% of your net profits will be taxed at 35% and 50% will flow in to your retirement account tax free.
In the case of an IRA doing business, including the business of a real estate dealer, 100% of your net income is taxable. You’ll need to file a corporate return, or a UBIT return, pay the tax, and report the after tax net as gains in your retirement account.
Now, here’s the problem. The IRS hasn’t bothered to define what makes an IRA a dealer in real estate. All we know is that it is someone in the “business” of real estate, rather than someone who is a simple “investor.” The bottom line is that being defined as a dealer, and thus getting to pay UBIT, is based on your intent.
If your intent is to buy, refurbish and sell multiple units, you are probably a dealer. If you buy a single family home and turn it into a rental, you are not a dealer. If you build up your rental portfolio to 20 units, or adopt a “flip this house” model, you have probably flipped your way in to UBIT.
If your intent is to invest, then no special planning is required. You simply form an offshore limited Liability Company and invest your retirement account in to that entity. From there, you control the transactions and can write checks on your account for the improvements, collect the rents, etc.
If your intent is to engage in a business, or if there is any risk of the IRS classifying you as a deal now or in the future, you need a UBIT Blocker Corporation added to your international structure. An offshore UBIT blocker corporation is one of the few remaining loopholes available to Americans and will eliminate UBIT.
A UBIT Blocker corporation eliminates the 35% UBIT tax by moving the transaction it in an offshore corporation in a tax free jurisdiction. It effectively converts the ordinary income earned in to dividends or other payments from the corporation to the retirement account. The UBIT Blocker moves income from “ordinary” and “unrelated” categories in to traditional investment returns. As such, business income, including profits from an IRA classified as a dealer in real estate, can avoid UBIT.
Please note that this requires the business be entirely offshore. The IRA, the LLC, the UBIT blocker, AND the real estate must all be outside of the U.S.
I hope you’ve found this post on UBIT helpful. For more information, please give us a call or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.