In this 13 page post, I’ll look at the requirements and suggested path to buy a bank in the United States. The purpose of this article is to give you guidance on the process, costs, timeframe, and license types available when looking to purchase a bank in the United States.
Note that most of my articles cover topics around setting up or buying international banks, especially in the US territory of Puerto Rico. Here, I’m using the term “United States” to mean domestic banks in the continental US and not an international bank licensed in a US territory. Specifically, I’m looking at banks licensed by a US state, the OCC, or other license types (see below).
I’m also assuming that the buying group has or will have foreign shareholders. A buying group of all US persons might not require a Bank Holding Company and can buy a US bank as individuals (though, this is probably a bad idea). A group that includes non-US shareholders will require a Bank Holding Company as described below.
An Introduction to US Bank License Types
In the United States, the banking system is unique due to its dual banking model, allowing banks to be chartered either at the state level or the federal level. Here is an overview of the three primary types of banking licenses:
1. State Banking Licenses:
These are issued by individual states’ regulatory agencies.
- Regulation and Oversight: State-chartered banks are regulated by their state’s banking department. They may also be members (and thus under the oversight) of the Federal Reserve System.
- Membership: They have the option but are not required to become members of the Federal Reserve System. Non-member banks are overseen by the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) for deposit insurance purposes.
- Coverage: State banks can only operate within the boundaries of the state where they are chartered unless they have specific agreements or branches in other states. Some larger state banks may operate in multiple states.
2. Licenses issued by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC):
The OCC is responsible for chartering and supervising all national banks.
- Regulation and Oversight: National banks are subject to federal regulations and oversight by the OCC. They are required to become members of the Federal Reserve System and have their deposits insured by the FDIC.
- National Scope: Unlike state banks, national banks can operate branches across state lines without the need for separate banking licenses in each state.
- Naming Convention: Typically, national banks have the words “national” or “national association” in their names, or the abbreviation “N.A.”
3. Other License Options:
A comment on the US Federal Reserve: While the Federal Reserve doesn’t directly issue banking licenses in the same way the OCC or states do, it plays a role in the regulation and oversight of bank holding companies and state-chartered banks that choose to be members of the Federal Reserve System.
- Oversight of Bank Holding Companies: Any corporation that controls one or more banks is considered a bank holding company and must register with the Federal Reserve. These entities are then subject to the Federal Reserve’s regulations and oversight.=
- State Bank Membership: State-chartered banks that choose to become members of the Federal Reserve System fall under the Federal Reserve’s jurisdiction for certain aspects of regulation and oversight.
- Monetary Policy: While not directly related to the issuance of banking licenses, the Federal Reserve plays a pivotal role in the U.S. banking system due to its responsibility for setting monetary policy.
Other License Types:
These are other financial institutions or entities with federal oversight but not directly chartered by the OCC.
- Federal Reserve Member Banks: These are banks that have elected to become members of the Federal Reserve System. They include both national banks (which are automatically members and are supervised by the OCC) and state-chartered banks that opt to become members. The latter is supervised at the state level and by the Federal Reserve, not the OCC.
- Federal Savings Associations (or Federal Thrifts): Historically, these were supervised by the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), but after the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2010, the oversight responsibilities of the OTS were transferred to the OCC. Therefore, it’s a misnomer now to refer to any federal bank “not licensed by the OCC” since the OCC oversees Federal Savings Associations as well.
- Credit Unions: These are member-owned financial cooperatives. Federally chartered credit unions are supervised by the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), not the OCC.
- Edge Act and Agreement Corporations: These entities engage in international banking and finance activities. They are supervised by the Federal Reserve. The Edge Act corporations are federally chartered, while Agreement corporations are state-chartered but operate under an agreement with the Federal Reserve.
The choice between seeking a state or national charter depends on a bank’s business model and strategic goals. A bank aiming to operate regionally might opt for a state charter, while one with national ambitions would likely choose a national charter. Whichever license a bank chooses, it’s imperative for them to adhere to the strict regulations set by the respective oversight bodies to ensure financial stability and protection for their customers.
How to Buy a Bank in the United States
Here’s a guide on how to purchase a state or nationally chartered bank in the United States, especially when involving non-US shareholders or investors.
Step 1: Set Up a Bank Holding Company
A Bank Holding Company (BHC) is essentially a parent company that owns or controls banks and other subsidiaries. Setting up a BHC is a prerequisite for individuals or entities, especially those with non-US shareholders or investors, intending to buy a bank in the US.
Why a Bank Holding Company?
- Regulatory Compliance: The Federal Reserve, the US central banking system, has put in place regulations that require entities desiring to own or control a bank to set up a BHC.
- Simplified Purchase: Once you have a BHC approved and licensed, approaching banks for purchase becomes easier. Without this approval, potential sellers will be hesitant to engage with you, knowing the time-consuming nature of the approval process.
- Protection for Non-US Shareholders: For those transactions involving non-US shareholders or investors, a BHC can offer a layer of protection and structure that simplifies ownership and control over the bank.
The bottom line is that no US bank for sale will bother to engage with a group that includes non-US investors unless and until your BHC is in place. A seller will know how difficult it will be and how long it will take for approval. A BHC is your pre-approval and gets you in the door and identifies you as a serious buyer.
Step 2: Get Your Bank Holding Company Approved and Licensed
Once you decide to set up a BHC, you’ll need approval from the Federal Reserve. This process can be intricate and requires significant documentation and scrutiny. It’s advisable to consult with legal and financial professionals who are familiar with the process.
The approval process can take at least 12 months, which is why potential sellers often prefer dealing with approved entities. The waiting period is a testament to the seriousness and commitment of the potential buyer. I will discuss this in more detail below.
Step 3: Approach Banks for Purchase
With your BHC in place, you’re in a position to approach banks for purchase. This doesn’t mean you can buy just any bank; the Federal Reserve and other regulators will scrutinize the purchase to ensure it adheres to regulations and won’t pose undue risks to the financial system. Factors such as capital adequacy, management expertise, and financial health will be closely examined.
Step 4: Conduct Due Diligence
Before finalizing a purchase, conduct thorough due diligence. This involves a comprehensive examination of the bank’s financial statements, operations, assets, liabilities, and other critical metrics. Again, having experts on your side is crucial to navigate this complex process.
Step 5: Finalize the Transaction
Once you’re satisfied with your due diligence, you can move to finalize the transaction. This will involve negotiating the terms of the sale, including the price, conditions, and any post-acquisition obligations. Make sure all agreements are legally documented.
Step 6: Operational Transition
Post-acquisition, there’s usually a period of transition. Depending on the size and complexity of the bank, this can involve integrating IT systems, consolidating operations, or even rebranding the bank.
Determining the Purchase Price of a Bank in the United States
The premium at which US banks sell can vary widely based on a multitude of factors, such as the health of the bank, its financial performance, strategic fit for the acquirer, competitive landscape, prevailing economic conditions, the State in which it operates, how valuable it’s book of business is to the buyer, and more. Typically, banking industry professionals use several financial metrics to determine the value of a bank and, by extension, the potential purchase or offer price.
Key Metrics Used to Value Banks:
Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio): This is the most commonly used metric when valuing banks. It compares a bank’s market value to its book value. A P/B ratio greater than 1 indicates that the stock is selling for more than its book value, while a ratio less than 1 indicates it’s selling for less. If banks in a particular region or of a certain size are generally selling for a P/B ratio of, say, 1.5, then a bank with a book value of $100 million might be valued at $150 million in a sale.
The common price-to-book (P/B) ratio used when buying a bank is around 1 to 2. This means that investors are willing to pay 1 to 2 times the bank’s book value for the stock. However, the P/B ratio can vary depending on a number of factors, such as the bank’s size, growth potential, and risk profile.
For example, a small bank with strong growth potential may have a P/B ratio of 3 or higher. This is because investors are willing to pay a premium for the bank’s stock, as they believe that it has the potential to grow rapidly and increase its book value significantly. On the other hand, a large bank with a stable financial performance may have a P/B ratio of 0.5 or less. This is because investors are not as willing to pay a premium for the stock, as they believe that the bank is unlikely to grow rapidly or increase its book value significantly.
Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio): While more commonly used for valuing non-financial companies, the P/E ratio can still provide some insights when valuing banks. It compares the price of a bank’s stock to its per-share earnings.
The common price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio used when buying a bank is around 10 to 15. This means that investors are willing to pay 10 to 15 times the bank’s earnings per share for the stock. However, the P/E ratio can vary depending on a number of factors, such as the bank’s size, growth potential, and risk profile.
For example, a small bank with strong growth potential may have a P/E ratio of 20 or higher. This is because investors are willing to pay a premium for the bank’s stock, as they believe that it has the potential to grow rapidly and generate significant profits. On the other hand, a large bank with a stable financial performance may have a P/E ratio of 5 or 6. This is because investors are not as willing to pay a premium for the stock, as they believe that the bank is unlikely to grow rapidly or generate significant profits.
Loan Quality: This examines the health of a bank’s loan portfolio. A bank with a high amount of non-performing loans will be valued less than a bank with a healthier loan portfolio.
The most common loan quality ratio used when buying a bank is the non-performing loan ratio (NPL ratio). This ratio measures the percentage of a bank’s loans that are considered to be non-performing. Non-performing loans are loans that are delinquent or in default. A higher NPL ratio indicates that a bank has a higher risk of default, which can make it a less attractive investment.
Other common loan quality ratios used when buying a bank include:
- Loan loss provision ratio: This ratio measures the amount of money that a bank has set aside to cover potential loan losses. A higher loan loss provision ratio indicates that a bank is taking a more conservative approach to lending, which can be seen as a positive sign.
- Loan-to-deposit ratio: This ratio measures the amount of loans that a bank has made relative to the amount of deposits it has on hand. A higher loan-to-deposit ratio indicates that a bank is more exposed to risk, as it may not be able to cover its loans if there is a large number of defaults.
- Credit concentration ratio: This ratio measures the percentage of a bank’s loans that are concentrated in a single industry or borrower. A higher credit concentration ratio indicates that a bank is more exposed to risk, as it may be more vulnerable to a downturn in a particular industry or borrower.
Net Interest Margin (NIM): This metric represents the difference between the interest income generated by a bank and the amount of interest paid out to its lenders, relative to the amount of its interest-earning assets. A higher NIM indicates better profitability and efficiency.
The common net interest margin (NIM) ratio used when buying a bank is around 3%. This means that the bank is earning 3% on its loans and investments, after paying interest on its deposits. However, the NIM ratio can vary depending on a number of factors, such as the bank’s size, location, and business model.
For example, a large bank with a national presence may have a higher NIM ratio than a small bank with a local presence. This is because the large bank has more bargaining power with its depositors and borrowers, which allows it to earn higher interest rates.
A bank’s NIM ratio can also be affected by the interest rate environment. When interest rates are rising, banks can earn more on their loans and investments, which can boost their NIM ratio. However, when interest rates are falling, banks can earn less on their loans and investments, which can hurt their NIM ratio.
Efficiency Ratio: This measures a bank’s overhead as a percentage of its revenue. A lower efficiency ratio means that the bank operates more efficiently.
The efficiency ratio is a financial ratio that measures how efficiently a bank operates. It is calculated by dividing a bank’s non-interest expenses by its net income. A lower efficiency ratio indicates that a bank is operating more efficiently, which can lead to higher profits.
The efficiency ratio is often used when buying a bank because it can provide insights into the bank’s operating costs and profitability. A bank with a low efficiency ratio is typically considered to be a good investment because it is likely to be more profitable.
The efficiency ratio can also be used to compare banks to each other. Banks with lower efficiency ratios are typically more efficient and may be better investments.
The formula for calculating the efficiency ratio is: Efficiency Ratio = Non-Interest Expenses / Net Income
- Non-interest expenses are the costs that a bank incurs in order to operate, such as salaries, rent, and utilities.
- Net income is the amount of money that a bank earns after paying its expenses and taxes.
A lower efficiency ratio is typically considered to be better. A bank with an efficiency ratio of 50%, for example, is operating more efficiently than a bank with an efficiency ratio of 75%.
The efficiency ratio can be a useful tool for evaluating a bank for purchase. However, it is important to consider other factors as well, such as the bank’s loan quality, capital ratios, and management team.
Here are some of the factors that can affect a bank’s efficiency ratio:
- Size: Larger banks typically have lower efficiency ratios than smaller banks. This is because larger banks can spread their fixed costs over a larger number of customers.
- Location: Banks located in urban areas typically have higher efficiency ratios than banks located in rural areas. This is because urban banks have higher rent and labor costs.
- Business model: Banks that focus on retail banking typically have higher efficiency ratios than banks that focus on investment banking. This is because retail banks have more predictable income streams.
- Management: Banks with good management teams typically have lower efficiency ratios than banks with poor management teams. This is because good management teams can find ways to reduce costs without sacrificing quality.
It is important to consider all of these factors when evaluating a bank’s efficiency ratio. A low efficiency ratio is not always a good thing. A bank with a low efficiency ratio may be cutting corners in order to save money. As a result, the bank may have lower quality loans or a less stable financial position.
Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE): These are profitability metrics. They measure a bank’s ability to generate earnings from its assets and equity, respectively.
The common Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) used when buying a bank is around 1% and 10%, respectively. This means that the bank is earning 1% on its assets and 10% on its equity. However, the ROA and ROE can vary depending on a number of factors, such as the bank’s size, location, and business model.
For example, a large bank with a national presence may have a higher ROA and ROE than a small bank with a local presence. This is because the large bank has more bargaining power with its depositors and borrowers, which allows it to earn higher interest rates and charge lower fees.
A bank’s ROA and ROE can also be affected by the interest rate environment. When interest rates are rising, banks can earn more on their loans and investments, which can boost their ROA and ROE. However, when interest rates are falling, banks can earn less on their loans and investments, which can hurt their ROA and ROE.
Return on Assets (ROA) is calculated as Net income / Total assets. It measures how much profit a bank is generating per dollar of assets.
Return on Equity (ROE) is calculated as Net income / Shareholders’ equity. It measures how much profit a bank is generating per dollar of shareholders’ equity.
As you can see, ROA and ROE are both profitability ratios. However, they measure profitability in different ways. ROA measures profitability based on a bank’s assets, while ROE measures profitability based on a bank’s shareholders’ equity.
In general, a higher ROA and ROE is considered to be better. However, it is important to compare ROA and ROE to other banks in the same industry to get a more accurate picture of a bank’s profitability.
It is also important to note that ROA and ROE can be manipulated by banks. For example, a bank can increase its ROA by selling off low-profit assets. Similarly, a bank can increase its ROE by issuing new shares of stock.
As a result, it is important to look at other financial metrics, such as a bank’s loan quality, capital ratios, and management team, when evaluating a bank for purchase.
In general, a bank with a high ROA and ROE is considered to be a good investment. This means that the bank is earning a lot of money on its assets and equity, which can lead to higher profits. However, it is important to consider all of the factors mentioned above before making a decision about whether or not to buy a bank.
Calculating the Purchase Price of a US Bank:
When calculating a purchase or offer price, an acquirer will look at a combination of the above metrics, the strategic value of the acquisition (e.g., does it provide access to a new market or customer segment?), and potential cost synergies (savings) after the acquisition.
It’s also common to engage in a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to estimate the present value of the bank’s expected future cash flows.
However, in practical scenarios, there are often non-financial factors at play as well. The cultural fit between banks, potential regulatory concerns, and the strategic landscape can all influence the final purchase price.
To get the most current premiums US banks are selling for, and to get a precise valuation for a specific bank, you’d typically need to consult industry reports, banking analysts, and potentially engage in a detailed financial analysis with the help of professionals in the banking M&A sector.
It is important to note that each of the ratios above is just one factor to consider when buying a bank. Other factors, such as the bank’s location, market share, customer base, and management team, are also important. By considering all of these factors, you can get a more accurate valuation of a bank and make an informed decision about whether to purchase it.
Why Prices are High for US Banks
The banking industry in the United States, with its rich history and ever-evolving dynamics, has witnessed countless mergers and acquisitions (M&A). One consistent theme over the years has been the fiercely competitive process surrounding the sale of banks, especially when large national banks set their sights on smaller regional players as a means of growth. Let’s dive into the intricacies of this landscape.
The Attraction of Small Regional Banks
- Expanding Footprint: For national banks, acquiring small regional banks provides an immediate presence in markets where they might have little to no penetration. This not only broadens their customer base but also gives them access to local expertise.
- Operational Efficiencies: When a large bank takes over a smaller one, there are often significant operational efficiencies to be gained, ranging from technology integrations to streamlined processes.
- Diversification: Regional banks often possess loan portfolios that are reflective of their local economies. National banks can benefit from this diversification, buffering against economic downturns that might impact one region but not another.
- Cultural Incorporation: Buying a regional bank provides national banks an opportunity to incorporate local banking practices and cultures that may be more in tune with regional customers’ needs.
Why is the Process so Competitive?
- Limited Opportunities for Growth: In a mature market like the U.S., organic growth can be slow and challenging. Acquiring a regional bank offers a quicker route to increase assets, deposits, and loan portfolios.
- Regulatory Challenges: While the U.S. has a plethora of banks, regulatory barriers can make opening new branches or entering certain markets challenging. Acquiring an already established regional bank can sometimes be an easier route.
- Strategic Importance: As mentioned earlier, the strategic advantage gained from acquiring a regional bank can be significant. This makes these banks hot commodities, with multiple national banks often vying for the same target.
- Low-Interest Environment: In periods of prolonged low interest rates, banks face challenges in generating returns. M&A activities, especially acquiring regional banks, can help boost profitability in such environments.
- Technological Advancements: Smaller regional banks, despite their size, might have invested heavily in technology, making them attractive targets for larger banks seeking to upgrade their digital infrastructure without starting from scratch.
The sale of banks, especially regional banks, is not a straightforward process in the United States. It’s a strategic chess game, with moves and countermoves driven by financial, regulatory, and market dynamics. As the banking landscape continues to change, driven by technology, changing consumer behaviors, and global economic factors, the competitiveness around bank sales, especially for those precious regional entities, will undoubtedly remain intense. Large national banks view these acquisitions as crucial steps in their growth strategies, making the U.S. banking M&A scene a space to watch closely.
Timeline and Process to Set Up a Bank Holding Company
Setting up a Bank Holding Company (BHC) in the United States with both U.S. and foreign shareholders involves a series of regulatory steps. The process is overseen primarily by the Federal Reserve, and the inclusion of foreign shareholders introduces additional complexities due to concerns related to foreign control, financial transparency, and potential national security implications.
Process of Setting Up a Bank Holding Company
- Determination of Qualification: Before initiating the formal process, you should determine whether the entity you plan to set up qualifies as a BHC. According to the Bank Holding Company Act, a BHC is any company that directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds the power to vote 25% or more of any class of voting securities of a bank.
- Application to the Federal Reserve: To establish a BHC, you need to file the appropriate application (typically Form Y-3) with the Federal Reserve.
- Review by the Federal Reserve: The Federal Reserve will review the application for various factors, including the financial condition, managerial resources, future prospects of the company and banks involved, the convenience and needs of the community, and competitive factors.
- Additional Scrutiny for Foreign Shareholders: Foreign shareholders, particularly those with a significant stake, might be subjected to additional scrutiny. The Federal Reserve will consider the financial health of the foreign entity, its home country’s regulatory regime, and any potential risks associated with foreign control.
- Interagency Coordination: Given the involvement of foreign shareholders, other agencies, like the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), might review the setup for any potential national security implications.
- Public Comment Period: There’s typically a public comment period where members of the community or other stakeholders can express their views about the proposed BHC.
- Approval or Denial: Once the review is complete, the Federal Reserve will either approve or deny the application. If approved, the BHC can commence operations under the stipulated guidelines.
- Preparation (1-3 months): Assembling all necessary documentation, especially with foreign shareholders involved, can be time-consuming. This includes financial statements, business plans, information about managerial competence, etc.
- Application Review (60 days): The Federal Reserve usually aims to act on BHC applications within 60 days after they’re deemed complete.
- Additional Time for Foreign Shareholders (Variable): The involvement of foreign shareholders can extend the review process. The timeline can vary based on the shareholder’s country of origin, the clarity of its financial disclosures, and any national security concerns.
- Public Comment Period (30 days): This is the standard time for the public to provide feedback, although sometimes it might be extended.
- Final Decision (Variable): After the public comment period and once all concerns are addressed, the Federal Reserve will take additional time to render a final decision. This can range from a few weeks to several months, especially if interagency reviews are required.
In total, while a straightforward BHC application might take around 6-8 months, the involvement of foreign shareholders can extend this timeline, making it potentially span anywhere from 8-14 months or longer. It’s crucial to engage legal and financial experts familiar with the intricacies of BHC formation, especially when foreign entities are involved, to navigate the process efficiently.
Timeline and Process to Purchase a Bank in the United States
Purchasing a bank in the United States, even after a Bank Holding Company (BHC) has been approved, is a complex process that requires strategic forethought, due diligence, and a significant financial investment. While the approval of the BHC lays the groundwork for a potential acquisition, the subsequent steps each come with their own timeframes and costs.
Timeframe to Purchase a Bank
- Identifying Targets (1-6 months): Once your BHC is approved, the process begins with identifying potential banks that align with your strategic goals. This could be swift if you already have a target in mind or could take several months if you’re starting from scratch.
- Preliminary Discussions and Letter of Intent (1-3 months): After identifying a target, preliminary discussions ensue. If both parties show interest, this can lead to the drafting and signing of a non-binding Letter of Intent (LOI).
- Due Diligence (2-6 months): This is a critical phase where the acquirer examines the bank’s financial records, operations, legal compliance, and more. The duration depends on the size and complexity of the bank being acquired.
- Negotiating the Purchase Agreement (1-3 months): This involves hashing out the terms and conditions of the sale. Depending on the negotiations and complexity, this can take weeks to months.
- Regulatory Approvals (3-12 months): After agreeing to terms, the deal requires regulatory approval. Depending on the regulatory body (state or federal) and any potential issues, this can take anywhere from a few months to a year.
- Closing the Transaction (1-2 months): Once all approvals are in place, the final step is the official sale, which can take a month or two to finalize.
- Overall, after the BHC is approved, purchasing a bank can take anywhere from 8 to 32 months, with the average bank acquisition taking around 9 to 15 months. However, these timeframes can vary based on multiple factors.
Costs Involved in Purchasing a Bank
- Advisory Fees: Employing investment bankers or financial advisors to assist in the transaction can be one of the most significant costs. Fees vary but can range from 1% to 3% (or more) of the transaction value.
- Due Diligence Costs: This includes fees for accountants, consultants, and other professionals who examine the bank’s books and operations. Costs can range from tens of thousands to millions, depending on the size and complexity of the target bank.
- Legal Fees: Hiring lawyers to review the legality of the transaction, draft the purchase agreement, and ensure regulatory compliance can be another major cost. Depending on the deal’s complexity, this can range from $200,000 to over $2 million.
- Regulatory Fees: There may be fees associated with the regulatory approval process.
- Integration Costs: After the acquisition, there might be costs related to integrating the two entities, including IT system integration, rebranding, staff retraining, etc.
- Financing Costs: If the acquisition is financed, there will be associated costs and interest payments.
The actual costs of acquiring a bank will depend on the deal’s size and complexity, but it’s not uncommon for total expenses (excluding the purchase price) to range from 2% to 10% of the transaction value.
While having a BHC approval provides a significant advantage, the process of purchasing a bank remains intricate, time-consuming, and expensive. Proper planning, consultation with experts, and understanding potential timeframes and costs are critical for a successful acquisition.
With a licensed Bank Holding Company (BHC) under your belt, you’re well-poised to delve into the U.S. banking market. This crucial milestone is just the starting point. From identifying suitable bank candidates to rigorous due diligence, from negotiating purchase terms to navigating the regulatory maze, the acquisition journey is a blend of strategy, scrutiny, and patience. While the path may be laden with complexities, especially in the intricate fabric of U.S. financial regulations, it offers a unique opportunity. With the right guidance, diligence, and foresight, you can successfully acquire and integrate a bank, marking a significant footprint in the American financial domain. As with any substantial venture, the rewards are commensurate with the challenges faced. Armed with a BHC and a robust strategy, you’re on the cusp of carving out a banking niche in the world’s most dynamic financial market.
For more information on setting up a Bank Holding Company in the United States, or purchasing an international bank in the US territory of Puerto Rico, please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org. I’ll be happy to assist you with the business plan, financial model, and all aspects of setting up the BHC, identifying a target bank, and closing the transaction with the seller and regulators.